This natural fortress was populated during the byzantine era, after the transfer of the administrative centre from ancient Corfu (nowadays Paleopolis) which was more in danger of an invasion. The fortifications of the Byzantines and the Angevins were reinforced by the Venetians (15th -16th cent.), also adding trenches to the fortification to increase the defensive ability of the fortress. Initially, the two large towers ( of the Land and of the Sea) were built on the two hilltops, which gave the town its byzantine name, the name 'Koryfo', a name which finally prevailed for the whole island (Corfu). During the 16th century the two bastions which rise on the left and the right side of the central gate took the form that they still have today. In the interior of the Old Fortress imposing buildings are still preserved, built by the English and the Venetians in order to cover their military needs at the time: the Venetian prison (1786), the former English infantry barracks (1840) which house the Archives of the Prefecture of Corfu and the Public Library, the former infantry barracks of English officers which house the Department of Music Studies of the Ionian University as well as the former British hospital, at the centre of the acropolis, which is also a part of the Ionian University and awaits its development. In the large opening of Versiada, the church of Aghios Georgios holds a dominant position, which was built in 1840 by Commissioner Howard. The complex of the main Gate houses the "Byzantine Collection of Corfu" which includes mosaics and detached agiographies, while on the bridge of the dry moat there is the temple of Madonna del Carmine, where painting and photograph exhibitions are hosted. In the north of the peninsula an artificial port was created called Mandraki, today housing the Sailing Club, while the water moat (Contra Fossa) constitutes an anchorage for the boats of amateur fishermen. From the impressive battlement of the Fortress and particularly from the top of Tower of Land (Cross) there is a panoramic view of the town but also of the opposite continental shore.